Complete History of Odisha


Complete History of Odisha, An “Illusion” for World.


Today in Complete History 0f Odisha,  we discuss history of Odisha briefly from starting to present time. The history of Odisha is based on various available sources. The Mahabharata makes the earliest reference to Kalinga and Odra. The Mahabharata mentions about this land and its sacred river Vaitarani and Goddess Viraja. Ramayana refers to Kalinganagara situated to the west of river Gomati and refers to the Gandhamardana.Different Puranas like Vayu Purana, Mastya Purana, Bhagavata, Harivamsa Purana and Vishnu Purana etc. throw light on Kalinaga and Utkala . The Kapila Samhita and Prachi Mahatmya are also considered as the sources of Odisha history. In ancient time the people of Odisha were largely the followers of Jainism and Buddhism.So, the Jaina and Buddhist culture speakes about the people of ancient Odisha and its culture.

The Arthasastra of Kautilya composed in 4th century B.C. is a standard treatise on polityand statecraft which influenced the political organisations of Kalinga. Among other such worksmention may be made of thelegal texts Iike the Smritis of Manu, Narada, Brhaspati, Katyayana,Yajnavalkya and Kamandaka which have moulded the political systems of Odisha. On the otherhand, the Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira, Astadhyayi of Panini and Kamasutra of Vatsyana alsothrow welcome light on the socio-religious and economic condition of ancient Odisha. The foreign visiters gives knowledge on ancient Kalinga. The historians like Pilny, Diodorus, Curtius, Plutarch, Megasthenes have mentioned about the people of Kalinga. Inscriptions and Coins played an important part in understanding the history of Odisha.Madala Panji is the temple chronicle of Lord Jagannath of Puri, it describes the historical events of Odisha.

History of Odisha .

The area now known as Odisha, was known in ancient times under several names,the most important of which were Kalinga, Utkala, Odra, Tosali , Kangoda and Kosala. To have an idea about the ancient Odisha it is quite necessary to have an idea about the main ancient geographical units.The fertile coastal areas from river Ganges to Godavari, with mountains and forests, was the boundary of Kalinga. The capital of Utkala was Viraja as known by the Soro Copper Plates. This place is Jajpur where the temple of Maa Viraja still present. The present name of Odisha has been derived from the name Odra or Udra or Odraka. Odra as a kingdom has also found in different contests,it was a big kingdom.  Tosali was an important political unit in ancient Odisha. It has been found in verious ancient Indian concepts. Kangoda was another geographical area of ancient Odisha. During the Sailodbhava dynasty, Kongoda was very powerful. Kongoda may be explained as the “Land of Honey”. Complete History of Odisha, An Illusion. accounts this was flourished in the sixth-seventh century A.D. It continued as parts of Kalinga and Odra.Kosala was a geographical unit in ancient Odisha. The earliest lime light of Kosala is found in the Parisistha of the Atharvaveda. The Epics and the Puranas also throw light on its ancient history.

According to Complete History of Odisha, The Kalinga War

The Kalinga War in 261 B.C. is considered the anchor point of Odisha history.Dated history of Orissa bigins with Kalinga war.The Kalinga war was the milestone in the rein of Asoka.The Magadhan Empire surrounded by Kalinga in the north, west and south. As a powerful neighbour Kalinga on the border of Magadha was definitely a threat . Asoka’s invasion of Kalinga was his imperialistic nature.There were some economic causes which had created rivalry between Kalinga and Magadha. Maritime trade in the Indian ocean Kalinga monopolised the trade and gained vast wealth. Religion was another factor for Asoka’s invasion of Kalinga. Before Kalinga War, Asoka was a Saiva believs in Hinduism. At that time Kalinga probably a Budhist land. Asoka might have decided a holy war against Kalinga to teach the Buddhists a lesson.The Kalinga war had a great impact on Indian history. There was huge loss in the Kalinga war. In this war 150,000 soldiers from the side of Kalinga
were taken as prisoners by Asoka and 100,000 were died and many others got died out of injuries and epidemic after the war.After that, Kalinga was annexed to Magadhan empire.The destruction of the Kalinga war changed the mind of Asoka.This war changed the heart of Asoka. He was changed from Chandasoka to Dharmasoka.After Kalinga War, Ashok converted to Buddhism.The change of Asoka helped in the spread of Buddhism.


Kharavela belonged to the Mahameghavahana family and of the Chedi clan according to the Hatigumpha inscription .Kharavela was known as Mahameghavahanena Airena Maharajena Kharavela. He was the most powerful ruller in Complete History of Odisha, was born with auspicious physical marks and noble qualities which were indicative that his future as a ruler. Till the fifteenth year, he spent his time in different types of sports and games. During this period he also acquired knowledge which were essential for a king, such as writing (Lekha),finance, currency (Rupa), arithmetic (Ganana) and law . As a prince,Kharavela underwent training in warfare (Dhanurbidya), music , dance and religion. In his first year of reign, he renovate the gates and buildings of his capital Kalinganagara.Kharavela had a large army of infantry, cavalry, elephant force and chariots. He made his first expedition against the powerful Satavahan king.In the fourth year of his reign, Kharavela moved his army and marched towards the Deccan. The territory of the Rathikas and Bhojakas were conquered.Kharavela doscard taxes both in urban and rural area of his kingdom.Then Kharavela made an expedition to the north and attacked the city of Rajagriha. He built a ‘Great Victory Palace(Mahavijaya Prasadam) by spending 38 lakhs of coins to celebrate his victory in the northern campaign. In the eleventh year of his rein, he defeated a confederation of southern powers of Cholas, Pandyas, Satpuriyas, keralaputras and Tamraparnis.In the twelfth year of reign, Kharavela campaign against Bruhaspati Mitra, the Sunga ruler of Magadha and defeat him,by the result he was knowm as Kalinga Jina.Udayagiri caves are made by him please the full article Complete History of Odisha .

Other Dynasties

After Kharavela his son Kudepasiri ruled Kalinga. So many other rulers ruled Odisha making their own Dynasties and enrolled in Complete History Of odisha. Amongs them Kushanas,Satavahanas,Murundas ruled over some parts of Odisha.Then comes Guptas,Samudragupta conquered Odisha.After Guptas Matharas are Vishakha Varman (350to360)A.D,Nandapravanjanavarman (480 A.D-498 A.D) ruled Odisha.A little known period Sharabhapuria Dynasty ruled over Odisha.

Shailodbhava Dynasty

Towards the middle of the sixth century , the political scene of Odisha changed, Sailodbhavas emerged as a hudge power they ruled Kangoda the undivided Ganjam and Puri districts from the Mahanadi in the north to Mahendragiri in the south.Some notable rullers are Dharmaraja I (553-575 A. D.),Madhavaraja I ( 575- 600 A D.), . Chharamparaja I (600-615 A.D.) ,Madhavaraja II ( 615 – 665 A.D.) ,Madhyamaraja I (665-695 A.D.) ,Dharmaraja II Srimanabhita (C-695 – 725 A.D.) .

Bhauma-Kara Dynasty

The Bhauma-Kara administration, administered Odisha in eastern India in eighth and tenth centuries and their kingdom known as Toshala. In last part of eighth century, the Bhauma-Karas had overtaken the previous Shailodbhava teritories. The early kings followed Buddhism, and later rulers followed Shaivism and Vaishnavism. The previous Bhauma-Kara rulled the northern Toshali region, the Shailodbhavas, who managed the southern Kongoda area. The dynastyrulled vast majority of the coastal front Odisha when of ruler Shivakara I (c. 756/786). As per the Ganjam inscription of the Shvetaka Gangas, Shivakara I captured Kongoda and the northern Kalinga.

Somavamshi Dynasty

The Somavamshi dynasty, otherwise called Keshari dynasty governed pieces of present-day Odisha in eastern India between the ninth and the twelfth centuries in Complete History Of odisha . Their capitals included Yayatinagara (presently Binika) and Abhinava-Yayatinagara ( present day Jajpur). The early Somavamshi kings rulled in the area of the eastern part of Dakshina Kosala, which currently shapes a lot of western Odisha. The Chaudwar iscription described Somavamshi ruler Janamejaya portrays him as Kosalendra (for example ruler of Kosala).Yayati I (c. 922-955), the son of Janmejaya I, made an big amount of grants in the Dakshina Kosala which are recorded on the inscriptions at Yayatinagara. The capital was subsequently moved to the Guheshvarapataka (current Jajpur) after the win of the Bhauma-Kara kingdom, following which it was renamed to Abhinava-Yayatinagara (the new city of Yayati).

The Eastern Gangas

The Gangas, popularly known as the Eastern Gangas, playrd a significant role in the medieval history of Odisha besides in Complete History Of odisha . They struggled hard for a long period from 498 A.D. to 940 A.D.for their presence. This was followed by a glorious rule, a period from 1038 A.D. to 1435 A.D. According to the tradition recorded in the early copper-plate grants of Chodaganga, the Eastern Gangas of Kalinga were a branch of the ruling Western Ganga family of Mysore.Kamarnava the founder of the Eastern Ganga dynasty migrated to Kalinga with his four brothers from Mysore leaving his ancestral kingdom to his paternal uncle. He came to the Mahendragiri where he worshipped Gokarneswara Siva and then occupied the Kalinga country after defeating the Savara Chief named Baladitya.The Ganga dynasty brought political stabilisation in Odisha.The Gangas are powerful rullers.The Ganga rullers are Anantavaraman Vajrahasta V (1038-1070 A.D.) ,Devendravarman Rajarajadeva (1070-1077 A.D.) ,Anantavarman Chodagangadeva (1077-1147 A.D.) ,Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was a powerful king of the Ganga dynasty.To establish a strong empire, Anantavarman Chodagangadeva followed the policy of conquest and empire building. He built several strong forts at Jajpur Kataka, Amaravati Kataka (near Chhatia) Choudwar Kataka, Sarangagarh Kataka etc. For stabilisation and consolidation to the vast empire, Chodagangadeva introduced a well organised administration.He was a great patron of literature and learning. His inscriptions shows his vast knowledge of Sanskrit, Odia and Telegu literature . His reign milestone is the Lord Jagannath temple at Puri which was completed by Anangabhimadeva III.After him Kamarnavadeva (1147-1156 A.D.) ,Raghavendradeva (1156-1170 A.D.),Rajaraja II (1170-1190 A.D.) ,Anangabhimadeva II (1190-1198 A.D) ,Rajaraja III (1198-1211 A.D.) rulled Odisha.Rajaraja-III was succeeded by his son, Anangabhimadeva-III in 1211 AD.He came to power at a time when the Muslim rule in Bengal had threatened the security of the Ganga kingdom. The major achievement of Anangabhimadeva III was his victory over the Kalachuris.Anangabhimadeva III was a great diplomat he offered his daughter Chandrika to marry Kalachuri prince Paramadrideva.He invaded Kanchipuram and Srirangam. Anangabhimadeva III transferred his capital from Kalinganagar to Kataka (Cuttack) situeted on the bank of river Mahanadi.Narasimhadeva I (1238 – 1264 A.D.) succede the Ganga throne in 1238 A.D., the by his time Ganga Empire reached its top. He was popularly called Langula Narasimhadeva.The Sun temple at Konarka was the magnificent creation in the field of architecture by Langula Narasimhadeva.Narasimhadeva was succeeded by his son Bhanudeva I.Narasimhadeva II ascended the throne with the death of Bhanudeva I in 1279 A.D..The decline of the Ganga empire started with the accession of Bhanudeva II.Narasimhadeva III (1328-1352 A.D.) rulled Odisha after him.Bhanudeva III to ascend the Ganga throne in 1352 A.D with the death of his father Narasimhadeva III. Narasimhadeva IV ascended the Ganga throne in 1378 A.D with the death of Bhanudeva III. Bhanudeva IV (1414-1435 A.D.) was the last Ganga king of Odisha.

Gajapati Dynasty

The Gajapati dynasty was established by Kapilendra Deva in 1435 soon after Bhanudeva IV of Ganga dynasty and played a vital role in Complete History 0f Odisha. The dynasty is also known as a Suryavansi dynasty. Kapilendra Deva spread his kingdom from Ganga in the north to Bidar in the south.He was succeeded by his son, Prataparudra Deva, in 1497.Govinda Vidyadhara was a minister of Gajapati king, Prataparudra Deva rebelled against him and succeeded in ascending the throne in 1541 and founded Bhoi dynasty.The Bhoi dynasty did not last long.A minister in Bhoi Dynasty Mukunda Deva rebelled and killed the last two Bhoi kings and smashed the rebellion of Raghubhanja Chhotray and declared himself the Gajapati of Odisha.

Mukunda Deva

Mukunda Deva was a chalukya .His real name was Mukunda Harichandana throned in 1559.Complete History of Odisha says During this period, Odisha was going through many internal conflicts. Mukunda made alliance with Akbar, that made him a enemy of Sulaiman Khan Karrani, the ruler of Bengal. In 1567 Sulaiman sent his son, Bayazid Khan Karrani and his general, Kalapahad, to conquer Odisha.1568 was important in the history of Odisha, Mukunda Deva was the last independent Hindu king of Odisha. After 1568 Odisha was not to be an independent kingdom again. Kalapahad (Rajiblochan Ray) destroyed several temples in Odisha including Konark Sun Temple.Odisha then cames under Karrani rule in 1568 of Karrani dynasty, who was the ruler of Bengal Sultanate. The Sultan posted Ismail Khan Lodhi as Governer of Odisha.

Mughal’s and Odisha

In Complete History of Odisha Mughals played a great role . Raja Man Singh who was the Mughal governor of Bihar, started an expedition against Qutlu Shah an officer of the Sultan of Bengal, declared himself independent. Before facing Man Singh, Qutlu Shah died. Qutlu Khan’s son Nasir Khan, accepted Mughal sovereignty on 15 August 1590.This way Odisha cames under Mughals.Nasir Khan was appointed Governor of Odisha.Nasir Khan attacked Jagannath Temple,then Man Singh attacked Nasir Khan and defeated him on 18 April 1592 in a battle near the present day Midnapore, Odisha completely merged to the Mughal empire and was a part of Bengal Subah(state).Akbar never interfere in the local and social matters of Odisha. Later his son, Jahangir came to power, under him, Odisha was made into a separate Subah(state) and had a governor, titled Subahdar, ruled in the name of the Mughal emperor.Quasim Khan was appointed the governor of Odisha in 1606.King of Khurda, Purusottam Deva fought with Mughal army and defeated, offer his sister and daughter along with dowry for peace.In 1611, Kalyan Mal, son of Todar Mal appointed governor of Odisha. Kalyan Mal also defeated Purusottam Deva, who had to send his daughter to the Mughal harem.In 1617, Mukarram Khan appointed governor of Odisha and tried to attack Purusottam Deva. But, Purusottam Deva fled from Khurda. In 1621, Ahmad Beg became governor of Odisha. Purusottam Deva died in exile in 1622 and was succeeded by his son Narasimha Deva.Muhammad Baqar Khan was appointed the governor of Odisha during Shah Jahan rule.Then Zaman Teharani was the governor of Odisha. In 1647, Narasimha Deva of Khurda was beheaded by Mughal general Fateh Khan. Khan-i-Duran was appointed the governor under Aurangzeb. During this period, he crushed several rebellions and subdued Mukunda Deva I, the then king of Khurda.

Under Other Muslim Rullers

Murshid Quli Khan was made governor of Odisha in 1714. In 1717, he declare himself Nawab of Bengal. He swore fealty to the Mughal emperor but he was an independent ruler completely. He took several measures to increase revenues and create some new Jagirswas played a great role in Bengal and in Complete History Of odisha,. In 1727, on his death, his son-in-law, Shuja-ud-Din became the Nawab of Bengal.Taqi Khan, the son of Shuja-ud-Din, was made the governor in 1727.He imprisoned Ramachandradev II and converted him to Islam.Bhagirathi Kumar, son of Ramachandra Deva II, was declared king by Taqi Khan. During his period, several Islamic structures were built in Odisha. Shuja-ud-Din died in 1739 and was replaced by his son, Sarfaraz Khan. Sarfaraz Khan was killed by Alivardi Khan. Alivardi Khan was not very popular in his kingdom. During his period bargi Marathas made raids on his teritories in the leadership of Raghoji Bhonsle.

Under Maratha Rule

Odisha captured by Marathas in 1751 and it’s a significant time in Complete History Of odisha.Marathas were Hindus, so they developed Odisha as a piligrimageteritory.They repairs and made maintenance of Lord Jagannath temple as well as other temples.They imposed tax for piligrims to collect funds for maintenance of temples. River Subarnarekha serves the border between Odisha and Bengal.During Maratha rule the culture ,literature and poetry of Odisha flourished. Local merchants have no free trade options as well as the over sea trading in which Odia merchats were the leaders became weak during Maratha rule. Odisha situated between Bengal and Madras,the location of the area is significant, Britishers know it very well. After several attempts they finally captured Odisha in 1803.After this Complete History of Odisha changed.

Under British Rule

British played a significant role in Complete History Of odisha, British Empire in India founded with the victory over battle of Plassey and its conformed in the battle of Buxar,this made them encouraged to occupy other parts of India. This was effect Complete History of Odisha. As the Maratha unity was disturbed, their powers gradually declined .Taking the advantages of the weak administration of the Marathas in Odisha, the regional land lords became uncontrilled.The British made a strong economic and military base in Odisha, established factories in different parts of Odisha. With the grant of Dewani, of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha to the East India Company the Britishers understand the importance of Odisha from the economic point of view. Britishers built factories at Hariharpur, Pipli and Balasore.The Britishers also felt the importance of Odisha from the military angle.The British then occupied Puri, Ganjam and Midinapur.The occupation of Puri encouraged the Britishers to occupy Cuttack.Odisha was divided into three administrative units under British.Cuttack’ was under Bengal Presidency, Ganjam and Koraput were under Madras Presidency and Sambalpur was under Central Provinces. Along with, there were princely states.Britishers shape the administration,economy etc according to their proffit at any cost.Britishers developed factories,communications,irrigations but the common people suffers a lot during British rule.The 19th century Odisha remarked a number of resistance of the common people,landholders, Zamindars and Feudatory Chiefs against the British Raj due to their discrimminating policies.The Paik rebellion of 1817 was one of the significant event in the history of Odisha.Besides this several rebellions organised time to time by Surendra Sai,Jayakrushna Rajaguru Mohapatra as leaders.At the end of 19th century Indian National Congress gained popularity in Odisha.On 6 April 1930, a gathering of Congress workers walked from Cuttack to Inchudi in Balasore. On 12 April, they opposed the English salt act by making salt. On 1 April 1936, Odisha became a separate State based on language,the state legisleture start working at Cuttack as capital of Odisha.. In 1936, Odisha devided in 6 Districts as Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Ganjam, Koraput, and Sambalpur. In 1943, the first University of Odisha, Utkal University was founded.Foundation stone for the Hirakud Dam was laid by the Governor of Odisha, Sir Hawthrone Lewis in 1946, Central Rice Research Institute at Cuttack also established this year.

In Republic of India

Complete History of Odisha states as India gained independence from British rule in august 15th 1947 and choose a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. Odisha has an unicameral legislature. The Odisha Legislative Assembly consists of 147 elected members now.In 1948 the capital of Odisha shifted from Cuttack to Bhubaneswar. on 26 July 1948, High Court of Odisha was inaugurated. By 1949, the 24 princely states in side the teritory of Odisha had been integrated and Odisha consists 13 districts at that time: Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Ganjam, Koraput, Sambalpur, Dhenkanal, Sundergarh, Keonjhar, Balangir, Boudh-Kandhamal, Mayurbhanj and Kalahandi.In 1953,Hirakud Dam was completed the dam is 66 meters high and 25.4 km long .In 1953, the Rourkela Steel Plant planned to be built in collaboration with West Germany. In 1956, the first technical degree institution in the state, University College of Engineering, Burla was established. In 1957, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru officially inaugurated the Hirakud Dam. In 1961, the new building of the Bidhan Sabha of Odisha was inaugurated by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Vice-President of India at that time.It was an remarkeble event in Complete History of Odisha. In 1961, the Regional Engineering College, Rourkela was founded.In 1962, the foundation stone of the Paradip Port was laid by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.It was innagurated by him in 1966. In 1962, the Balimela Reservoir project was established. In 1964,Hindustan Aeronautics Limited plant was established in Sunabeda .In 1981, NALCO was founded at Angul.In 1990, a native of Odisha Ranganath Misra became the 21st Chief Justice of India.On 20 February 2014, the Odia language was selected as a classical language of India.Odisha has been divided into 30 districts now.According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of Odisha is 41,974,218.In politics of Odisha, parties active are the Biju Janata Dal, the Indian National Congress and Bharatiya Janata Party. In the Odisha State Assembly Election in 2019, the Naveen Patnaik-led Biju Janata Dal remain in power for the fifth consecutive term, he is the chief minister of Odisha since 2000.Complete History of Odisha proud of it’s progress.


In Complete History of Odisha, An Illusion., we may conclude  the history of Odisha begins from the Lower Paleolithic period. Odisha has a rich heritage from its past to present and also rich in art and architecture. The classical dance of Odisha, known as odissi, has survived for more than 700 years is famous around the Globe.Odisha is the state of many traditional festivals. One is the ceremony of Boita-Bandana to remember the past maritime expeditions.All in all, Odisha is an express that embodies the quintessence of India’s variety and legacy. It offers an interesting mix of history, culture, and regular magnificence that can enamor any voyager. From its antiquated sanctuaries to its unblemished sea shores, from its dynamic celebrations to its delicious cooking, Odisha brings something to the table to each sort of adventurer. As one submerges oneself in the rich embroidery of this state, it becomes obvious that Odisha isn’t simply an objective; it’s a remarkable encounter, an excursion into the core of India’s unimaginable social and regular variety. Thank you for reading Complete History of Odisha.



Q1– What are the major tourist attractions in Odisha ?

Ans- Odisha offers an extensive variety of vacation destinations. A portion of the unmistakable ones incorporate the Sun Sanctuary at Konark, the Jagannath Sanctuary in Puri, the Lingaraja Sanctuary in Bhubaneswar, the delightful Chilika Lake, the Bhitarkanika Public Park, and the staggering cascades like Duduma Cascade. The state likewise has the undeniably popular Rath Yatra in Puri and offers perfect sea shores along its shoreline.

Q2– What is the best time to visit Odisha ?

Ans – The best chance to visit Odisha is throughout the cold weather months, from October to Spring. The weather conditions is wonderful, with cooler temperatures and negligible precipitation, making it an optimal time for touring and outside exercises. Notwithstanding, a few celebrations like the Rath Yatra in Puri are commended throughout the mid year months, so on the off chance that you’re keen on encountering these far-reaching developments, plan as needs be.

Q3-What is the food of Odisha known for ?

Ans – Odia food is known for its delightful fish dishes, with the Odia fish curry being a famous decision. The state is likewise eminent for its desserts, particularly the Rasgulla, which began in Odisha. Other must-attempt dishes incorporate Dalma (a lentil and vegetable stew), Pakhala (matured rice), and an assortment of Chutneys and Bhartas (pounded vegetables). Odisha’s culinary customs are different and offer an exceptional taste of local flavors.

Q4– What are the social features of Odisha ?

Ans –  Odisha has a rich social legacy. It is the origination of the traditional dance structure, Odissi, known for its elegance and articulations. The state additionally has the amazingly popular Rath Yatra (Chariot Celebration) in Puri, where a great many fans and travelers assemble to observe the terrific parade of Lord Jagannath, Prabhu Balabhadra, and Devi Subhadra. Odisha is likewise known for its handiworks, including Pattachitra artistic creations, silver filigree work, and unpredictable materials, which are famous keepsakes for guests.

By rudramadhab

The Man Who Believes In Sharing Knowledge,Because Knowledge Increases By Sharing. .

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